24.07.2020

What was Anatoly Dyatlov (Part -2)

Little-known facts about A.S. Dyatlov


PART TWO


Fate brought me to Anatoly Stepanovich for the first time in 1969 in the Far East, when I, a young specialist, came to the plant after graduation, the second time our fates crossed in 1974, when I came to work at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Integrity, honesty, personal responsibility and dedication to the work you serve, impeccable knowledge of technology, simple human decency and plus complete dedication - these are the criteria that had to be met by everyone who was going to work with Dyatlov.    
   
At first, it was not just difficult for us, young specialists, but it seemed impossible to raise the entire volume of technical material, in order to master the reactor installation as A.S. himself knew it, not only twelve hours of work was not enough, but also Saturdays and Sundays , and only time has confirmed his rightness, and we became like-minded people. He could understand the mistakes made by the staff if they were reasoned, but he absolutely could not accept sloppiness, incompetence and negligence in his duties. A.S., as a rule, was distinguished by directness, clarity and brevity in presenting his position, and this was not always good for him. A.S. did not allow himself or others in his presence to carry out a showdown with   
   
  personnel who have made mistakes and are currently at the workplace. I remember a case when at me (I was at the console) worked reactor protection and the ship was left without a stroke at otchalivanii from the pier. The commissioning mechanic began to educate me, but A.S. just put it out of the control room. After passing the shift, on the analysis of the reason for the operation of A3 - I made a mistake - I received mine in full from A to Z, but not from the mechanic, but from A.S. A characteristic feature of his character was a pathological rejection of all untruths and lies. If someone was caught even in a false statement of events, not to mention a deception, he never took this person's word. A.S. was a person who had his own point of view on all issues (and often did not coincide with the generally accepted one). He was tough in demands, but not cruel in relationships, he was not afraid to take responsibility within his competence and be responsible for it, but he was not going to be responsible for the ignorance, inability and lack of professionalism of others. He knew how to listen and hear the interlocutor, to argue his position, which was brilliantly confirmed by the "trial" in 1987. This episode is typical. When it was said at the court that RBMK does not meet even today (and this was already 1987, that is, a year has passed after the accident) with the requirements of norms, rules and standards on nuclear safety, the judge replied that this was not relevant. It turns out that what the Chernobyl victims were tried for is irrelevant. That was the kind of trial, therefore A.S. was formally convicted, but the verdict was passed to the system. A heightened sense of responsibility was combined in this man with a powerful intellect, his phenomenal memory was simply amazing when he read Yesenin or Blok in memory. Outwardly A.S. he did not particularly care about his image, from the outside he seemed harsh, categorical and generally a person with a complex character. But you had to know Dyatlov, you had to see how he loved children, nature, the forest, to see his eyes, face - therefore, having believed him in 1969, I believe him today.       
      

State Inspector for Nuclear Safety of Ukraine A.V. Kryat

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Isabella Ivanovna asked me to write short memoirs about Dyatlov, and I don't know how to do it shortly, because it's a whole life. It is impossible to separate Dyatlov from our mutual acquaintances, from work, and the actual memories of Dyatlov are memories of work, of the city ​​of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, of Pripyat and, of course, of the accident. I have been associated with Anatoly Stepanovich Dyatlov for many years of joint work, and, perhaps, to a greater extent, the period after the Chernobyl accident, although after the accident we did not meet with him as often as was necessary. First, a few words about yourself. I am a professional nuclear power engineer both by education and by work throughout my life. In 1970, I first met Anatoly Stepanovich in the city ​​of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, where I came to work at the Plant. Lenin Komsomol after graduation. At that time, nuclear submarines were being built at this plant, and it really was the flagship of the Soviet military-industrial complex. Huge workshops, in which modern nuclear missile carriers for that time were being completed in varying degrees of readiness. Shop No. 22, in which I started working, was auxiliary and united several laboratories and sections that ensure radiation safety, assembly of reactors and measurements of neutron-physical characteristics, installation and commissioning of special electronic navigation equipment and reactor control systems. The laboratory in which I worked was called a physical laboratory, and its main tasks were to supervise the assembly of the main power plant of the ship, including reactor equipment, and adjust this equipment, participate in the acceptance tests of the submarine. The head of this laboratory was Dyatlov. The laboratory was small, about twenty people, only men. All the young, only three Rusakov, Dyatlov and Fochkin were old, they were about forty. At that time, they did not stay there for a long time, the term of a young specialist ended on the mainland. In our laboratory, only Borya Rusakov was local, he graduated from the evening institute and with great difficulty was admitted to the laboratory, you see, his education was not an engineer-physicist. In the laboratory, Dyatlov was the undisputed leader, and rather not by official position, but simply no one doubted this. Of course, we can say that in such a team, where more than half of the staff are young specialists, I would not say just being a leader. At the plant, Dyatlov was an absolute authority on the physics and safety of a nuclear power plant, with his opinion, I think, were taken into account by our scientific leaders (I.V. Kurchatov IAE and IPPE Obninsk). My further fate, like that of many other employees of the laboratory, was determined by Dyatlov. He moved to work in Chernobyl, and other Komsomol members followed him (Kryat, Padenok, Sitnikov, Chugunov, Shulgin). In Pripyat we supported the community, communicated with families. I can not say that I was a friend of Dyatlov, probably only Sitnikov maintained very close friendly relations with him. Dyatlov was a difficult person to communicate, direct, had his own point of view and never changed it at the request of the boss, persuaded, did not agree, in the end obeyed, but remained unconvinced. Likewise, he took little account of the opinion of his subordinates. As you can imagine, not everyone loves such a person. Once we had a conversation with him about money, and he said that he had a little more than five thousand rubles on his savings bank. He explained that he needed this book for independence: "if they break it, I will quit my job and somehow interrupt myself for several months." He had some kind of inner core, beliefs through which he could never step over. Back in the city ​​of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Volodya Vlasov called him a kerzhak, and not because Dyatlov was born and raised in Siberia, but because it was almost impossible to force him to do it against his convictions. And when they say that, for the sake of the plant director or chief engineer, Dyatlov could have ignored the safety principles, gave instructions to turn off the reactor protection or violate the instructions, I will never believe this.          
    

Chairman of the State Committee for Nuclear Safety of Ukraine V.V. Grishchenko

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In the life of any person, there are people whose personal qualities evoke a certain sympathy and respect. But only a few of them leave a bright and indelible mark that remains in the soul for life. A.S. was one of the few people I happened to meet in my life . Dyatlov. With A.S. I met Dyatlov in 1973 at the Chernobyl NPP, where I started working after graduating from the institute in 1972. Before Anatoly Stepanovich moved to the second stage of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1979, my entire career was associated with him. Since the formation of the staff of the reactor shop, where A.S. Dyatlov was the deputy head of the operation department, there were only a few young engineers like me. It was still a long way from the start-up of the unit, and all the workers in the workshop performed the assigned work, which is usually performed by the workshops at the stage of construction and assembly of the unit. In addition, future operatives A.S. Dyatlov set the task of preparing for exams for the position and, accordingly, studying equipment, operating documents , etc. There was a corresponding order, schedules for the phased passing of exams, but the question arose about the lack of time for study during the working day, which was asked by A.S. ... Dyatlov. The answer was short: "Learn after work and on weekends," which he actually did himself. And everyone had to learn, RBMK-1000 was a new technique for everyone at that time, and even more so for us young. First of all, Stepanich, as we called him among ourselves, was demanding of himself and devoted himself to work in full, but also asked about the fulfillment of the task in full. He did not recognize trifles in our work, both during installation and during operation. Those who did not understand this, explained to them on purpose, knew how not only to convince, but also to listen to the worker. Anatoly Stepanovich did not tolerate sloppiness at work, and especially if they tried to cheat him, deceive, tell a lie. In such cases, he immediately switched to the name and patronymic during the conversation , and the culprit often knew that he would report on the performance of the work ten times more often, they would ask him more strictly, and the trust was lost for a long time. Anatoly Stepanovich was stingy with praise in his work, he took the performance of work for granted, but he could stand up in front of his superiors for a shop employee if he was offered to undeservedly punish him. For a heart-to-heart talk, if necessary, he was open to both a simple shop worker and an engineer, he never boasted of his position. He does not have a sense of humor, read the book and see for yourself. I must say that many of us A.S. Dyatlov impressed with his knowledge not only deeds. Let me give you one example. Somehow late in the evening at the shift on acceptance of the reactor diagrams , A.S. entered the trailer, where several people from the shift were. Dyatlov to check how the work is going. Two young specialists were solving a differential equation for some correspondence students and they did not succeed, they made noise and did not notice it. Woodpeckers asked them to move to the bench, and sat down in a short time have to make a mistake and solved the problem. And then he said: "At work you need to do work, I'll see you again, you will write explanatory notes." It is understandable that not everyone was like him demands the performance of work for at least "good", and some have understood it later, but of course there were also those who used the occasion to throw a stone at him during the investigation, but the court did not show up ... I I am personally grateful to Anatoly Stepanovich for the fact that his "school" helped me to fully join the ranks of the best operative specialists at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The second time I was brought closer to A.S. Dyatlov, our tragedy 04/26/86 , Dear readers, I would like to share with you how I also learned the courageous character of Anatoly Stepanovich. Judge for yourself, here is an excerpt from letters, starting from 1989, on behalf of the Kiev Council of the "Society of Veterans of Elimination of the Accident and Consequences at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant", which are practically unchanged in essence and were sent alternately to the Supreme Court of the USSR, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and, finally, the President USSR M.S. Gorbachev “Of the fourteen diseases of the convict, Dyatlov A.S. five diseases (coronary heart disease, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive bronchitis, emphysema) are available in the list of diseases that are the basis for granting release from punishment convicts according to the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR №213 from 10.30.1987, the In this in the said list there is no such disease as acute radiation sickness (ARS) of the 2nd and 3rd degree, which, in our opinion, is inhuman, and this issue requires an immediate solution. We would like to emphasize that a disabled person of the 2nd group A.S.Dyatlov, suffering from ARS of the 3rd degree at the age of 59, who is serving a sentence in places of deprivation of liberty, cannot improve his health in any way, because ARS disease constantly causes undefined side effects that worsen the patient's condition. We believe that the answer of the Medical Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR ref. 4 / 1-69 from 2.02.90 to our address, in which, in particular, the following is stated: “Dyatlov A.S. to the release from places of imprisonment due to illness. not subject, does not fall under the requirement of the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR ", illegitimate ... Of the six convicted in this case, only two are in prison - AS Dyatlov. and Fomin NM, who, due to their state of health, cannot, like other convicts, be conditionally released after serving ⅓ of the term with the obligatory involvement of convicts in labor. " After the deceitful trial, being in the camp, from which, according to the law, due to the aforementioned diseases, the authorities must release, but does not want to, he resists with replies “No”, A.S. Dyatlov found the strength to overcome mental and physical suffering and to present the truth about the events of 04/26/86, to analyze and evaluate various documents about the accident, hoping that he would be heard and understood someday. The machine of lies about the causes of the Chernobyl accident worked without interruption until 1988, so few of the former student-colleagues at work kept in touch with A.S. Dyatlov when he was serving time. Some people are still tormented, is Stepanich right in everything? The lie is strong, but not forever. I think I will not be mistaken that after reading the book you, dear readers, will know the real truth about the causes of the Chernobyl disaster and cast aside all the doubts that have been tried to impose on you over the past fifteen years. He did not live long after the release of A.S. Dyatlov, very often we, his comrades-in-arms in the fight for the truth about Chernobyl, gathered together and saw how difficult it was for him, how his illnesses tormented him and how courageously he endured all this. Blessed memory of him!       
             
Deputy Director of the State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Ukraine V.V. Lomakin 

* * *

On the night of 25 on April 26, 1986 I NV Navalny, at 24:00, took over the shift at the radiation control panel of the second stage. Our responsibilities included radiation control of the central rooms of reactors of the 3rd and 4th blocks and all adjacent rooms with increased radiation hazard. After bypassing the 3rd block, I returned to the shield, I did not go to the 4th block, because he stopped. It took just a few minutes, as a roar was heard from the direction of the turbine hall. After 5–10 s, a dull blow of the most powerful force. The lights and warning lights on the panel of the 4th block went out , the panel of the 3rd block lit up with a red light and a sound alarm squealed, black-red dust came from the ventilation hatch ... So I found myself in the epicenter of a nuclear disaster, which in a matter of minutes could become fatal for me ... That night I had to come face to face with the shift supervisor of the 4th unit A.F. Akimov, Deputy Chief Engineer for Operation of Phase II A.S. Dyatlov, L. Telyatnikov and many other participants in the liquidation of this catastrophe, unfortunately, many are no longer alive. On the next 15th anniversary of that terrible night, I want to remember all our guys who died: A.F. Akimov, A.I. Baranov, BC Brazhnik, Yu.A. Vershinin, V.M. Degtyarenko, Yu.I. Konoval, Kudryavtsev A.G., Kurguza A.Kh., Lelechenko A.G., Lopatyuka V.I., Novika A.V., Perevozchenko V.I., Perchuka K.G., Proskuryakova V.V., Sitnikova A. A., Toptunova L.F., Hodemchuka V.I. (grave - 4th block), Shapovalova A.I., Shashenka V.F., Busygina G.V., Kovalenko A.P., Dyatlova A.S., Gashimova M.U. There was no panic, negligence and slovenliness that night , there was no fear and unskilled actions, as much has been written over these 15 years. Everyone had a dumb question in their eyes - why? And everyone did what he should, what he was obliged to do, what he could, rescued equipment, extinguished fires, looked for and took out the victims. On April 27, together with A.S. Dyatlov, I ended up in the 6th hospital in Moscow. In the first days, the same conversations were conducted : they assumed, argued, thought - why the explosion? Anatoly Stepanovich was thin, fit, always calm and self-possessed, he said convincingly: “we did everything right,” sometimes he thought about it… Investigators often harassed him, there was an opinion that this was sabotage. There were versions about the guilt of the staff ... Almost every day someone dies ... There is emptiness in the soul, the future is unknown - to live or die, where is the family? On the 60th day, I had a second wave of burns, the first ones had not yet been healed, but new red-cherry spots began to appear, more and more every day ... Long months of treatment. Low bow to all doctors, doctors and nurses. On October 27, she was discharged home as a disabled person with bandages on his wounds, which are still troubling. On December 31, 1986, they were taken to their home station and secretly presented with government awards: orders and medals - to the living, orders posthumously - to widows. Didn't they find a place in Kiev, or only heroes were awarded there ?! Found "scapegoats" - judge. They are released after a few years. And again silence ?! How to look the fallen children in the eyes ?! For what or who did their fathers die ?! They lived with Anatoly Stepanovich Dyatlov in the same house, often met in the yard, in hospitals. The last time, a few months before his death, they were lying in Pushcha-Voditsa. In the evening, we are going to have supper, Anatoly Stepanovich had severe headaches, and he says: “How do you want, guys, to hear the truth, when, finally, the people will find out how it was ?! How I want to live more, but my head does not give me life - neither day nor night, but how I want to pull a glass and have a snack on black bread with bacon! " Stepanych ate black bread with lard with pleasure. He was a courageous man. The kingdom of heaven, the earth to all of them in peace and the eternal memory of the living, and not silent silence and nothingness.           
             

Former duty dosimetrist of the 5th shift of the ChNPP Labor Protection and Safety Department N.F. Gorbachenko 

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