Chemical intelligence machine
Armored reconnaissance and patrol vehicle
BRDM 2 aka "Bardak" was developed and created during the Cold War. In 1962, the first model was produced at the design bureau of the Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ). A year later, serial production of cars was launched, and since 1982 they began to produce bronze GAZ at the Arzamas Engineering Plant. BRDM production continued until 1989.
BRDM is an abbreviation. It is translated as follows. Armored reconnaissance patrol vehicle. Initially, this armored car was created to replace the light armored personnel carrier BTR-40 as a standard light reconnaissance, linking and stacking vehicle for the Soviet Army. The BRDM turned into a real mobile, armored reconnaissance vehicle. Its use in chemical intelligence, BRDM found during the Chernobyl disaster, like many other models of military equipment.
To understand what she is capable of. First of all, this is a reconnaissance vehicle. When creating a new generation of BRDM, compared with its previous version, a certain layout was changed, a tower was introduced, reinforced weapons were installed, the chassis, electrical equipment, communications and auxiliary systems were improved. The machine body is completely airtight, welded and made of rolled steel armor plates. The thickness of the armor in the frontal part is 10 millimeters. All that is needed to protect against ripples and splinters is equipment and gear.
The weight of the machine is 7 tons. As a rule, GAZ-41 eight-cylinder gasoline engines are installed at the rear of the machine. The exact same engine was installed on GAZ-13 and GAZ-14 Chaika cars. The power of this engine is 140 liters. with.
The machine has four-wheel drive on each wheel, and for this additional wheels can be used, which are hidden under the armor and can be lowered if necessary. Additional wheels are also driving.
In addition, the machine is able to overcome water barriers. To do this, a water jet is installed in the rear of the car. Water is drawn from under the bottom and passes through the propellers thrown out from behind.
The crew of the BRDM is only 3 to 4 people: a driver-mechanic, commander, gunner and observer.
Of the armed forces, the BRDM-2 has a coaxial installation of a 14.5-mm machine gun KPVT (heavy machine gun Vladimirov tank) and 7.62-mm PKT (machine gun Kalashnikov tank). Aiming at the target is carried out with the help of a periscopic telescopic sight, providing fire from the KPVT at a range of up to 2000 meters and from PKT - up to 1500 meters. KPVT is designed to combat lightly armored and unarmored enemy vehicles. The Kalashnikov machine gun is designed to defeat enemy forces and fire weapons.
During the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, Bardak also played the role of an “iron liquidator”. These machines were usually used by chemical intelligence and dosimetrists. Thanks to the availability of special equipment, the BRDM is capable of determining the degree of contamination of soil, water and food, as well as conducting research and studies of the biological, chemical, and radiation nature of the affected area.
To conduct measurements of gamma and beta radiation levels, a DP-5 dosimetric device was installed in the "Bardaki". In the event of a device failure, an IMD-21B was installed on board, which can operate in the event of a DP-5 failure. IMD-21B is designed to determine the dose rate and is able to give a signal if the maximum permissible norm is exceeded. For air sampling, a GSA-12 device (automatic gas detector) is installed in the machine. The intake takes place via gas communication using an injection pump. In the context of the use of chemical weapons, the BRDM can use the military chemical reconnaissance device VPHR 6. The device is capable of determining the level of concentration of toxic substances in the air, such as chlorocyan, sarin, hydrocyanic acid, soman, diphosgene, mustard and phosgene.
An automatic ASP alarm was installed on BRDM machines, which is capable of continuously monitoring atmospheric air in order to detect special aerosol impurities in it. In case of danger in the fighting compartment, the indicator lights up with the inscription: "Dangerous", and an audible alarm is also activated.
In the first days after the accident, with the help of such cars, reconnaissance of the dosimetric situation was carried out in the area of the Chernobyl station and the city of Pripyat. Since the territory of the zone turned out to be quite large, for reconnaissance it was necessary to travel by transport that would meet certain requirements - speed, security and patency. The latter was also extremely necessary, measurements were carried out almost everywhere, from paved roads to forest terrain. Machines that operated on the territory of the Chernobyl NPP site were sheathed with lead for additional protection from exposure to radioactive radiation.
According to the dosimetrists. The increased mass of the "Mess", and the weight was already large, affected the management, acceleration and fuel consumption. The brakes of such devices burned immediately - an accelerated car could stop for a very long time. But still, the defense was good and sometimes it was worth sacrificing anything for this.
Measurement of levels was as follows. A crew of three went on a specific route. At the necessary point, the dosimeter ran out through the upper hatch and took measurements - air, at a height of a meter from the ground, and the earth itself. Meanwhile, the commander recorded all the evidence, and they drove on.
Since almost all the "Bardaki" that took part in the aftermath of the accident and worked in the infected areas were required to undergo decontamination. The decontamination to which they were subjected at the end of the working day yielded practically no result. After the end of the main period of liquidation of the accident, they suffered the same fate as other "iron liquidators". They forever remained on the territory of burial grounds in the Exclusion Zone.
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