04.07.2020

Chernobyl during World War II (part-1)

Occupation of the city of Chernobyl

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An important episode in the centuries-old history of Chernobyl is the period of the city's occupation by the Wehrmacht troops during the Patriotic War. This page is an attempt to bring together disparate historical descriptions of the existence of the city of Chernobyl and the Chernobyl region in the period from 1941 to 1943.


Located on a high terrace above the floodplain, surrounded by the Pripyat and Uzh rivers, the city of Chernobyl had an advantageous (in a military-tactical sense) geographical location. The possession of the city gave the military strategic advantages in the conduct of hostilities and made it possible to control transport routes (river routes, roads and railways).


There is very little information about the battles for Chernobyl during the retreat of Soviet troops. Perhaps the city was surrendered to the enemy without a fight? It is known that a significant part of industrial enterprises were evacuated, in particular, the ChREB was evacuated to Rostov-on-Don. During the retreat, Soviet troops blew up part of the industrial infrastructure of the city, blew up a bridge over the Pripyat River. There was an attempt to blow up the St. Elias Church, but the military failed. According to some researchers of Chernobyl, the walls of the Temple survived thanks to God and the unique strength of the brickwork, into the solution of which, during the construction of the Temple, egg yolk was added.


During the retreat of the Soviet troops, the execution of the Chernobyls was carried out. Dozens of Chernobyl victims were in the city prison and were shot by the NKVD without trial or investigation.
Two months after the start of the war, German troops entered the city. On August 25, 1941, the city of Chernobyl was occupied.
Given the presence of a significant number of Jewish population, the German authorities immediately began to register and register Jews who lived in the city of Chernobyl. According to the orders of the occupiers, all Jews were required to wear a special bandage and had to work out their labor service in various institutions and enterprises of the occupied city.


After three months of occupation, the Germans carried out a mass cleansing of the city from the Jewish population. On November 19, 1941, about 400 Jews were gathered near the Synagogue (Spasskaya St.). The Jews were taken under escort, and in organized columns they were taken to the administrative building of the Jewish collective farm "Nae Welt", where they were undressed. The execution of Jews was carried out on the same day at the city cemetery. There the bodies were massively buried in an anti-tank ditch.


After the war, a small monument was erected at the site of the mass massacred Jews. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of workers in the exclusion zone do not know about these tragic events that took place in the city of Chernobyl more than seventy years ago.
During the years of occupation, the population of the city of Chernobyl and the Chernobyl region was massively sent to work in Germany. According to the recollections of the old-timers, the removal of the population was carried out from the Tolstoy Les railway station. By the way, the stone road that connects the village of Lubyanka and the village (railway station) of Tolstoy Les was built during the occupation to ensure the operation of the railway junction.


During the years of occupation, the Chernobyl underground existed, conducting organized resistance to the invaders. The underground existed at the shipyard and in the city. The underground of the city of Chernobyl was led by P.M. Kvasha. In the Chernobyl forests, a partisan detachment was hiding, which was called “them. Stalin ". The number of the partisan detachment was about two hundred people. In the spring of 1943, the detachment joined the partisan association, led by S.A. Kovpak and participated in large military operations on the territory of Belarus.

 

The underground of the city of Chernobyl and the fighters of the partisan detachment provided important support to the Soviet troops in the capture of the city. The underground workers supplied information about the number and weapons of the enemy, and also supplied the regular units of the Soviet troops with floating craft when crossing the Pripyat River, etc.