07.08.2019

What is radiation?

Ionizing radiation.

Every day in the environment we are affected by various natural phenomena. These are heat, cold, rain, wind, snow and others. Thanks to our senses, we can react to these phenomena, for example, to shelter from a rain using an umbrella, to hide in the shade from the sun, to shelter in a room from strong wind or snow. However, in nature there is a phenomenon to which a person cannot react - this is radioactivity. Radiation - invisible, inaudible, has no taste, color and smell.

But, you need to understand that radiation is everywhere, there is no place on Earth where there is no radiation. Everything that surrounds us has its dose of radioactivity.

Radiation and radioactive elements were always in the environment, and living organisms evolved and existed in this environment.

Nature is not defenseless against ionizing effects, since in the process of evolution various mechanisms of protection and restoration of biological structures were developed. However, as a result of human activity, the creation of a nuclear weapon, accidents at nuclear power plants, the background radiation increases dozens of times, respectively, the exposure levels of living organisms can exceed millions of times.

Our homes, food, furniture, clothing, and even air have established permissible levels of radioactive substances. In cases of detection of exceeding the established levels of radionuclides, special services are engaged in order to discover the source and its elimination.

Radiation does not need to be afraid - it must be understood.

There is such a thing as "solar radiation" - the electromagnetic radiation of the sun. Solar radiation propagates at the speed of light and is able to penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere. Accordingly, the closer we are to the sun, the higher is the level of radiation exposure. If we are talking, for example, about traveling by plane from New York to London (8 hours), then passengers are exposed to the same level of radiation as one X-ray image. So it's possible to agree that the pilots and flight attendants have a hard time.

If we are talking about excursions to Chernobyl, then for one-day tour, you will receive a dose of radioactivity that is equal to a two-hour flight by plane, or you will spend two days in Kiev (the capital of Ukraine), or the radiation dose will be 160 times less than for one fluorography.

Interestingly, some products also contain radioactive elements. For example, bananas contain the radioactive isotope Potassium-40. Potatoes, beans, nuts and sunflower seeds also have a natural level of radiation.

In medicine, ionizing radiation is used to examine the skeleton and internal organs (X-ray, fluoroscopy), and radiation therapy is used to treat tumors.

Since high school, physics lessons, you know that ionizing radiation is divided into three types: alpha - the flow of atomic nuclei, which is easily stopped by a sheet of paper; Beta - a stream of atomic nuclei that is easily stopped by a sheet of metal 2 mm thick; Gamma - energy, waves or photons, to stop the flow of this energy it will be necessary to have already heavy elements, such as lead.

Any medium consists of particles-atoms.

Atomic nuclei are stable and unstable. Unstable or radioactive atomic nuclei differ in that they change their structure (decay) with time, turning into the nuclei of another element or isotope of the same element. In this case, radioactive decay is accompanied by the emission of electromagnetic radiation, electrons and even entire nuclear fragments. These particles and energy released are what are called radiation or ionizing radiation. In most cases, they are carriers of a large amount of energy, and when interacting with atoms, this energy is released (which leads to radiation).

Currently, Ukraine has sanitary-permissible levels of ionizing radiation, which is 0.30 μSv / hour (30 μR / hour). In a year with an average irradiation of a person it is approximately 3-4 millisievert annually (0.4 R / g). In general, the radiation background in different countries is different. For example, in France the annual dose is 5 mSv / year, in Sweden - 6.3 mSv / year. On the beaches of Guarapari in Brazil, where more than 30,000 people a year rest, the radiation level is 175 mSv / year due to the high thorium content in the sand. In the town of Ram-Ser in Iran, the radiation level reaches 400 mSv / year.

 

Excursions to the Chernobyl Zone, the city of Chernobyl, Chernobyl NPP, Pripyat.

Our tourist routes around the Chernobyl Zone are legal and safe. During the whole trip you will be accompanied by an experienced guide who will not only show you interesting and memorable objects and locations in the restricted area, but also tell the story, which was divided into stages before and after.

The company CHERNOBYL ADVENTURE organizes regular trips to the restricted area for both day trips and two-day tours. Signing up for a tour right now, you will have a unique opportunity to visit the huge museum of the Soviet past. You will see the Duga-1 over-the-horizon radar station, which was intended to track missiles from the United States during the Cold War, the Lenin Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl,and walk along the streets of the city of Pripyat.

Follow the guide’s instructions, be attentive and careful while walking. Thank you for choosing CHERNONYL ADVENTURE for traveling to Chernobyl and Pripyat.

See you on the tour!